Authors are encouraged to submit high quality, original work that has not appeared in, nor is under consideration by, other journals. Papers which have previously appeared in conference proceedings will also be considered, and this should be so indicated at the time of submission.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
Prepare and submit the manuscript strictly as per “Guidelines for authors”. Manuscript NOT prepared as per Guidelines will not be considered.
1) For units, use standard symbols conforming to the International System of Units (SI), e.g., km, m, cm, mm, μm, Å, nm; kg, g, mg, l (liter), ml (milliliter), μl (micro liter), yr (year), wk (weak), d (day), hr (hour), min (minute), sec (second), ppm (parts per million), 0C (centigrade), SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), CV (coefficient of variation), mg l-1 (milligram per liter), ms-1 (meter per second), g l-1 (grams per liter).
2) For enzymes, use trivial names as recommended by IUPAC-IUB Commission.
3) For abbreviations, full form of abbreviation should be given at the first citation with abbreviation in the bracket e.g., Jaynes Cummings Model (JCM).
4) Tables should be typed in Microsoft-Word Table format on separate pages, and should be numbered using Arabic numerals. They should be supplied with headings and should be referred to as “Table 1, 2, …”.
5) Figures Only original figures & photographs of high resolution and contrast should be given, prepared by Coral Draw / EPS software as vector-based files.
§ The figure width should be 8 cm OR 16 cm and height should not exceed 23 cm with the screen resolution of 300-600 dpi in JPEG or TIFF format. Scanned line figures and images should be of minimum resolution 800 dpi and for halftone 300 dpi.
§ Symbols and lettering size should be of 9 point in Arial Narrow. Use units as specified in “Authoring Guidelines”. The axis of the graph should be 0.5 point or 1.0 point. Do not draw figures with hairlines. Use black & white, hatched and cross hatched patterns for distinctness. Overlapping of the symbols and data should be avoided. Avoid variations in font size in a single figure.
§ Use Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & Black (CMYK) colors rather than Red, Green or Blue (RGB) for color figures. Use zero before a decimal number e.g. 0.3, 0.55 etc.
§ Electronic changes or manipulation of micrographs or other digital figures / images are not allowed. Linear adjustment of contrast & brightness of color must be applied to the entire image or plate equally. The legend of each figure should be given at the bottom.
6) Paper structure: Complete Information should be given (mandatory) and should contains the following information:
§ Title of the manuscript: Short, informative, should not exceed two lines. Numbers and abbreviations should NOT be included (Example, Fixed-Time Analysis of Neural Networks).
§ Author(s) name(s): The names should be in the order: initials of first and middle names and then surname (family name), (Example, M. Abdel-Aty1, H. Servistava2 and M. Ahmed3), Check that all names are spelled correctly.
§ Author(s) affiliations: Full designation, professional address with postal code, country name and mobile number of all the authors (Example, 1Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, 82524, Sohag University, Egypt)
§ E-mail ID of all the authors
§ Short running title: only of 4 or 5 words (Example, Fixed-Time Analysis of …… )
§ Abstract: Content should be concise and factual, not exceeding 300-400 words, with no references, history of the subject, general sentences and abbreviations and should be written under the following sub-headings: Objective describing research methods used, mentioning to significant findings and recommendation and relevance of the study. (Example: Abstract: We propose a method to engineer stroboscopically arbitrary one-dimensional optical potentials. Our approach is based on ……… . We demonstrate the ability of the method to engineer …………… . We analyze the influence of ………… . It is shown that ……...)
ü Key words: only 4-5 Key words to serve as subject index. They should be arranged alphabetically.
ü Introduction: should be precisely includes the history of the subject, the importance of this work, recently related work, exactly what will be done i.e. objective of the study, the organization of the rest of the paper, concise and specific with no sub-headings, no long paragraphs and accurate citations starting from , ,  etc. (Example:
Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing and quantum computation [1–4]. In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the study of the evolution of joint systems formed by two qubits [5–15]. In particular, Yu and Eberly [5, 6] have found out that ………………
On the other hand, the long-lived entanglement in cavity QED or solid state systems was investigated by several authors [18–22]. In , the authors …………………..
In the present paper, we investigate the entanglement dynamics and coherence of a quantum system formed by two two-level atoms within two spatially separated …………………. ………………….
The present paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we obtain an explicit analytical solution of one atom interacting with a dissipative cavity in the dispersive limit. In section 3, we consider a quantum system consisting of two atoms within two spatially separated cavities. In section 4, the entanglement dynamics and coherence of the two two-level atoms are investigated by employing the concurrence and linear entropy, respectively. Finally, we summarize our results in section 5.
§ Text which should be subdivided into the following main headings:
v 1. Introduction
v 2. Materials and Methods
v 3. Results and Discussion (Combined)
v 4. Acknowledgments
v 5. References
§ Materials and Methods should be sufficiently detailed to enable the experiments to be reproduced. The standard techniques and methodology should be adopted and supported with references of standard protocols only.
§ Results and Discussion should be combined. Results may be split into sub-headings. Results should be co-related and discussed. Data emerging out from the study should be included, arranged in a unified and coherent sequence, and statistically analyzed with significance. It should deal with interpretations and the conclusions drawn, based on results and supported by relevant references. Position of figures and tables should be indicated. The same data should not be presented in both tabular and graphic forms.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
Electronic Figure Submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, and colour diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Colour art is free of charge for online publication.
- If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colours are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colours are still apparent.
- If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to colour in the captions.
- Colour illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
- Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
- For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
- All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
- Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colours for conveying information (colour-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
- Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
Latest references should also be cited. Unpublished references should not be cited.
§ Acknowledgments should include the names of those who contributed substantially to the work and the sponsor or the funding agency.
§ References should be cited in the Text by numbers , ,  etc. While giving the names of the periodicals, standard abbreviations listed in the International Serials Catalogue, published by International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board (ICSUAB) should be used. Under the heading of References at the end of the manuscript, full and complete references should be written as per style and punctuation given below (see box), arranged alphabetically by first authors surname. (Example:
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading Declarations.
If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write Not applicable for that section.
To be used for all articles, including articles with biological applications
Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)
Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)
Availability of data and material (data transparency)
Code availability (software application or custom code)
Authors contributions (optional: please review the submission guidelines from the journal whether statements are mandatory)
Additional declarations for articles in life science journals that report the results of studies involving humans and/or animals
Ethics approval (include appropriate approvals or waivers)
Consent to participate (include appropriate statements)
Consent for publication (include appropriate statements)
Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
(How to prepare your references)
ü Article in a Journal
Author(s). Article title. Journal title, vol., pages, year.
 B. Gates and M. Aty, Why Word is Used in Information Security, Microsoft Lett.,69, 53-60 (998).
 A. Homid, M. Abdel-Aty, M. Qasymeh and H. Eleuch, Efficient quantum gates and algorithms in an engineered optical lattice, Scientific Reports, 11, 15402 (2021).
Author(s). Book title. Publishing company, Location: Page, year.
 M. Nelsin and I. Chuang, Quantum Information and Computation, Oxford Press, London UK, 53-60, (1998).
ü Book Chapters
Author(s). Chapter title, in Book title, edition, volume. Editors name, Ed. Publishing company, Publishing location: page, year.
 J. E. Bourne. Synthetic structure of industrial plastics, in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3. J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 15-67, (1964).
 M Abdel-Aty: Quantum Information Prossing, in Plastics, 9th ed., vol. 5. J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1-61, (2001).
ü Articles from Conference Proceedings (published)
Author(s). Article title, Conference proceedings, page, year.
 D.B. Payne and H.G. Gunhold. Digital sundials and broadband technology, in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 557-998, (1986).
ü Papers Presented at Conferences (unpublished)
Author(s). Paper’s title, Conference name, Location, year.
 B. Brandli and M. Dick. Engineering names and concepts, presented at the 2nd Int. Conf. Engineering Education, Frankfurt, Germany, (1999).
Author(s)/Inventor(s). Name/Title. Country where patent is registered. Patent number, date.
 E.E. Rebecca. Alternating current fed power supply. U.S. Patent 7 897 777, Nov. 3, (1987).
ü Dissertations and Theses
Author. Title. Degree level, school, location, year.
 S. Mack. Desperate Optimism. M.A. thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, (2000).
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) Drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) Approved the version to be published; and
4) Agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
· ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
· managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
· providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
· Making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
§ Author short biography and recent photo with white background should be used (Passport Photo)
Professor Mahmoud Abdel-Aty completed his doctorate in quantum optics at Max-Plank Institute of Quantum Optics, Munch, Germany in 1999. He received the D. Sc. (Doctor of Science), in 2007. His current research interests include quantum resources, optical and atomic implementations of quantum information tasks and protocols. He has published more than 240 papers in international refereed journals, 14 book chapters and 2 books. Abdel-Aty’s research has been widely recognized and he has received several local and international awards. In 2014 he has been elected as a vice-president of the African Academy of Science.
Dr. Susan Jing completed her doctorate in economics at University of Reggio Calabria. She was the Founder and Director of ICRMS, Research Canter of Mediterranean Relations and Vice Rector at University Dante Alighieri of Reggio Calabria. She is a referee and Editor of several international journals in the frame of pure and applied mathematics, and applied economics. Her main research interests are: dynamical systems, patterns of growth and sustainable development, economics, game theory, applied economics, differential geometry and applications, geometric dynamics and applications.